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The brains of athletes are uniquely different in that the actions on the brain sustained in playing and competing in sports have been found to put athletes at greater risk, or are associated with, a range of neurological conditions of the brain. This section details the types of Neurological conditions that have been associated with competing in sport and the crucial role of Neuropsychology in these conditions. 

Post Concussion Syndrome
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE)
Alzheimer's Disease
Parkinson's Disease
Motor Neuron Disease
Lewy Body Dementia
Neuropsychiatric Conditions
Second Impact Syndrome

Acute Traumatic Brain Injuries

Acute brain injuries are injuries that are sustained during participation in a sport. There are various different types of acute brain injury which can lead to different effects in both the short-term and long term.

Description and Anatomy

There are various layers between the skull and the inside of our brains. During play, significant acute injuries can develop as the result of trauma at various places. Depending on where the injury is, there are various different labels for the injury:

Subdural Haematoma is a collection of blood that is similar to a clot. It is a serious injury that is rare in the general population, but one of the most common head traumas that athletes can experience. The brain is separated from the bone of the skull by a sheet of thin durable tissue called the dura. The dura is connected to the brain by a thick network of veins, which are called "bridging veins". When the head is hit, the brain shakes violently and causes the veins to tear and bleed. The bleeding forms a clot and this is a subdural haematoma.

Epidural Haematoma is also a collection of blood that occurs in the brain after a trauma. This type of injury occurs further away from the brain between the skulls and the dura.

Signs, Symptoms and Prognosis


Neuropsychology and Acute Brain Injuries


In Sport



Epidural Haematoma

Subdural Haematoma